Section #11 on page 72 contains another important fact: “The formula does not account for cationic minerals (Ca) on leaf surfaces (lambsquarters, sunflower, velvetleaf, others) that can antagonize glyphosate.” Some plants contain Ca on the leaf surface and additional sulfate is needed to nullify that mineral source. The chemistry and the chemical reacions are the … AMS-Xtra ™ contains 3.4 pounds of Ammonium sulfate per gallon. If you have an eight ounce cup handy, you would need to add two of these, full to the top, to the 5 gallons of spray. To supply 4 pounds of nitrogen per year, apply 2/3 pound ammonium sulfate at each application. Water quality in the mid-west and west is notoriously bad. with 44 - 88 gallons of water per Acre (9.0 - 12.0 oz. Per Cubic Yard. Keep bypass agitation on if you sit idle mid job. Our good spray water quality has resulted in many cutting out or only using AMS at 0.5 lb/100 gallons of water for a water conditioner for Roundup. The 0.5 lb of AMS is much less than the 8.5 to 17 lbs/100 gallons of water that is recommended on the Roundup labels. AS to a 100 gallon spray tank. 1/2 1 1/3 2 1/4 4 1/2 . Effect of Ammonium Sulfate (AMS) on velvetleaf control with glyphosate in the field. If you have trouble accessing this page because of a disability, please contact Pest&Crop newsletter at luck@purdue.edu. of Ammonium Thiosulfatewith 1 - 2 gallons of water per 1,000 sq. Effect of hard water cations on herbicide efficacy of weak acid herbicides. This application shall provide 0.09 - 0.12 lb.  This is the reason why herbicide labels typically contain statements that indicate that rates of AMS, 8 ½ to 17 pounds of AMS per hundred gallons of water, are recommended on many glyphosate labels. It is not practical to calculate the amount of Ca on weed leaf surfaces and will require increasing the amount of AMS needed just for that mineral source. 20 percent multiplied by 75 is 15, which is the ppm of Nitrogen in 1 oz of Ammonium Sulfate per 100 gal of water. Figure 2. The answer will be the ppm of the element per oz of the fertilizer in 100 gal of water. Rechlorinaion and ammonia addiion are only needed in this system the summer and early fall months. When using high glyphosate rates the requirement for AMS diminishes and complete control may occur on susceptible weeds if AMS is used or not used. Add 16 ounces of lesco spreader sticker to the mix LAST, after fert is dissolved and Herb has beed added. AMS is available as a dry material, and also as a liquid. Volumes of Fertilizer for These Volumes of Soil. + (0.042 X ppm Fe). © 2020 Purdue University | An equal access/equal opportunity university | Copyright Complaints | Maintained by Pest&Crop newsletter. Growers using the equation and adding AMS only at 0.5 lbs/100 gal may overcome herbicide antagonism from low mineral content in water but the low amount of AMS will not provide sufficient ammonium to optimize herbicide activity – the 0.5 lbs of AMS may have enough sulfate to bind minerals but it does not contain enough ammonium to enhance the herbicide. So if you have access to information about the salts in your water you can add the correct amount of AMS. Your typical range is 2-4 oz per gallon of water. While this formula can be used to overcome the hard water cations in the spray solution (spray tank), the formula does not take into account hard water cations on plant leaf surfaces, which are fairly prevalent. A recipe posted in the DyersLIST mailing list in 1998 by Don Weiner, formerly of PRO Chemical & Dye, calls for 13.6 grams of ammonium sulfate per pound of yarn in 2.5 gallons of water. Adding more AMS than called for to neutralize the effects of cations may improve glyphosate activity by providing extra N that helps weak acid herbicides like glyphosate pass through cell membranes. This gives us the amount of ammonium sulfate needs to be added to every 5 gallons of glyphosate spray. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), a cool-season grass hardy in USDA zones 4 through 7, also requires 2 to 4 pounds per 1,000 square feet per year, but cool-season grasses are fertilized in midspring, early summer, late summer and late fall.  It is fairly well-known that the weed control efficacy of many weak acid herbicides like glyphosate, 2,4-D, clethodim (Select and others), glufosinate (Liberty and others) can be reduced when water sources contain hard water cations like calcium (Ca+2), iron (Fe+3), magnesium (Mg+2), and sodium (Na+). The product label for Drexel AMS Supreme states: 2.5 gallons of this product per 100 gallons of spray solution (2.5% v/v) will provide 8.5 pounds of dry ammonium sulfate equivalent plus the optimum level (8 ounces) of HPG polymer technology. So for example, you can not dissolve 78 grams of ammonium sulfate in 100 milliLiters of 80 degree water and then cool it to 60 degreees with out 5 grams of amonium sulfate precipitating out of solution, because the max solubility of ammonium sulfate at 60 degrees is only 73 grams per 100 milliLiter. 4 12 20 40 . Second reaction: ammonium (from AMS) binds with glyphosate to form glyphosate-ammonium.  However, we would advise that it will be important to understand your water hardness test levels before severely reducing AMS rates. MSU recommends adding 17 pounds of ammonium sulfate to the spray water before the glyphosate is added.  Since AMS has typically been a low cost spray water conditioner, the additional amount added to a spray tank has not been viewed as a major expense. Teaspoons. It is important to remember that the function of ammonium is just as important as role of sulfate. Mineral level in water increases to over 1,600 ppm in western ND. Student Focused. Apply 1 ounce ammonium sulfate per blueberry bush three times in the first year, rising to 4 ounces in the fourth year. References The equation listed above can be used to calculate the amount of sulfate in AMS that is needed to overcome antagonistic minerals in the spray water.  Some water in this region may have low mineral content and when using the equation only a small amount of AMS will be calculated to nullify the hard water. ft. For example, if your material is ammonium sulfate and the recommended rate is 500 pounds per acre, use 1.2 pounds or 1 pint of fertilizer for a 100-foot area, use 3 … It is from this research and also from an extensive water quality testing campaign conducted by Winfield with thousands of water samples tested across the U.S that we have concluded with a general recommendation to “Always add AMS at 4 to 6 lbs/100 gal of water”. You could either spray the leaves with Ammonium Sulfate solution or just water the plant. Typical water levels on sprayers is 10-20 gallons per acre. I know it's recommended you put the AMS in first at 17 and a half pounds per hundred gallons of water and I am looking for some advice. Water in ND, SD, and MT is often high in sodium bicarbonate which does not normally occur in other areas of the U.S. Calcium levels above 150 ppm and sodium bicarbonate levels above 300 ppm in spray water can reduce weed control in all situations. How much ammonium sulfate to use. This site is supported in part by the Crop Protection and Pest Management Program [grant no. Long Answer: Two reactions occur with AMS. I started out the year using an AMS substitute called rRequest and a while back after reading a study on them I saw that spray grade granular ammonium sulfate by far gets the best kill with Roundup. This does two things. We have received a few questions this winter and spring about ammonium sulfate (AMS) rates to use with postemergence herbicides and how much is needed to overcome hard water issues. when ammonium sulfate is used as an additive to the tank mix. Ammonium sulfate is purchased in 2 pound bags and mixed at only 0.2 pounds per gallon of feed soluion. Department of Entomology Fortunately AMS is VERY CHEAP, so this shouldn’t inhibit its use. **Important point: Even in water with no or low antagonistic cationic salt content where no sulfate is needed, a generous amount of ammonium is required to form ammonium-herbicide for optimum herbicide activity. Was this answer helpful to you? How reliable is this formula? 1 gallon. First, we would like to review the reasons for using ammonium sulfate with postemergence herbicide treatments. Rate Per Acre Lbs. When dyeing with Washfast Acid Dyes, use one teaspoon of ammonium sulfate per gallon of dyebath (5 ml per 4 liters). pppldj uses 1 Tbsp per 2-1/2 gallons of water Figure 1. Spread it around the bush then water it in thoroughly. It occurs in crystals with particle size that is variable, colored white to beige (IPNI 2012). So you are legally allowed, but should you? 100 300 500 1000 . Use it at the rate of between 8 ½ and 17 lb. Subscribe to receive weekly PDF via e-mail, Subscribe to a feed  of individual articles. AMS-Supreme ™ contains 3.4 pounds of Ammonium sulfate per gallon. Water quality must be known to adjust AMS rate. Allow enough time for complete dissolution before adding additional adjuvants or herbicides. The value of AMS will be clearly evident not only when spray water contains antagonistic levels of minerals, but also on those weeds that are less susceptible, weeds larger than recommended, weeds hardened by drought, weeds stressed by environment or previous herbicide applications, or when using herbicide rates that are lower than required for complete kill. Last thought – A great scientist (Dr. John Nalewaja) once said the following, “The best adjuvant for Roundup is more Roundup”. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES PROPERTY SPECIFICATIONS Effect of Ammonium Sulfate (AMS) on velvetleaf control with glyphosate in the greenhouse. AMS per 100 gallons of water as a water conditioner. The addition of 8.5 to 17 pounds of AMS per 100 gallons of water is generally recommended to improve glyphosate activity. (3.34 divided by 0.21 = 15.9 ounces or one pound).  The sulfate essentially sequesters the hard water cations and prevents them from binding to the herbicide (Figures 2 and 3). Tablespoons. of actual N per 1000. Tanning with Aluminum Sulfate. First, the sulfate ions tie up calcium and magnesium in the mix water. ND water often contains a combination of sodium, calcium, magnesium, and iron and these cations are generally additive in the antagonism of herbicides. Land Grant. Glyphosate molecules in hard water. 2017-70006-27144/accession 1013592] from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Ammonium sulfate has also been used in flame retardant compositions acting much like diammonium phosphate. Remove the hide from the neutralizer and rinse in clean water. per 100 gallons of water. Additional Ammonium sulfate is needed only under extremely hard water conditions. Ammonium Thiosulfate (ATS) as an Ammonium Sulfate (AMS) Replacement (06/01/17) He normally uses 8.5 lbs.  Because of lower commodity prices and grower interest in keeping input expenses as low as possible, I thought it would be a good time to review this topic and the AMS equation to help applicators and farmers plan for spring and summer herbicide applications. West Lafayette, IN 47907, An equal access/equal opportunity university. I don't use Ammonium Sulfate so have no personal info on dosage. Always read and follow the label instructions on … LIQUID AMMONIUM SULFATE 40% SOLUTION DESCRIPTION Liquid Ammonium Sulfate (LAS) is a clear to pale yellow odorless liquid solution. Question: Several of my growers have been using the formula listed in section #11 on page 72 in the 2015 ND Weed Control Guide to assess their water quality and AMS requirements: Feel free to use and share this content, but please do so under the conditions of our, Equation Used to Calculate Rate of AMS (07/02/15), NDSU Crop & Pest Report - September 24, 2020, NDSU Crop & Pest Report - September 10, 2020, NDSU Crop & Pest Report - August 27, 2020, NDSU Crop & Pest Report - August 13, 2020. Always add a nitrogen source if allowed and not restricted by the label! Enjoy, Pete D. It is difficult to calculate the amount of ammonium sulfate needed to overcome Ca on the leaf surface. "The amount of AMS can be adjusted based on water hardness if it is known, and a rate of 8 pounds per 100 gallons may be adequate for many sources of water." Using 25 lbs of 21-0-0 Ammonium Sulfate would put you @ just over a tenth of a lb. So, if one uses 41% and if it has surfactant, and if you are using ammonium sulfate (most don't but are suppose to), then the rate is 1-2 qt/acre. GPM = gallons per minute (water flow to which ammonia is being added) mg/l = ammonia dosage in milligrams of ammonia per liter (ammonia as NH4 + or NH 3) #/gal = pounds of ammonium sulfate per gallon (ammonium sulfate solution) 1.9 is a conversion factor 1,000 is a conversion factor Glyphosate molecules in hard water plus Ammonium Sulfate (AMS). Cups. This breaks down to approx 3.2 oz per gallon of water. The ammonium sulfate fertilizer or sulfate of ammonia ((NH 4) 2 SO 4; sulfate is also spelled sulphate) is sometimes called ammosul or further abbreviated as AS or AMS.It is a chemical compound that is primarily used as a nitrogen fertilizer with other minor uses. LAS is a stable, non-hazardous, non-toxic aqueous ammonium sulfate solution manufactured at 40% by weight ammonium sulfate (NH 4) 2 SO 4. In a separate container, dissolve 4 ounces of Sodium Carbonate and 1 cup of salt to every ½ gallon of water. Figure 5.  Additionally, after antagonistic minerals are neutralized by the sulfate, the ammonium can bind with the herbicide to form the ammonium herbicide salt, which can more effectively pass through the plant cuticle resulting in greater herbicide absorption, in some cases increased herbicide translocation, and overall greater herbicide efficacy.  This ‘physiological’ effect of AMS enhancing foliar herbicide activity even in the absence of hard water is important to keep in mind when considering adjuvant products that contain less ammonium, yet claim to be a replacement for AMS. 901 W. State St. What is the application rate for Ammonium Sulfate to dissolve in water (foliar application)? We recommend dissolving 1 to 3 tablespoons per gallon of water. Adding ammonium sulfate (AMS) to the water in the spray tank before adding glyphosate will act as a water conditioner and improve weed control, regardless of whether or not a surfactant is needed. The label also correctly warns that adding AS does not preclude you from using the proper surfactant. All weak-acid herbicides are enhanced by ammonium.  It is highly likely that AMS rates can be reduced to the lower end of the recommended rate and herbicide activity will not be compromised. This ammonium-herbicide molecule can more effectively pass through the cuticle resulting in greater absorption and greater herbicide efficacy. Also re-agitate 2-3 min before spraying another job w/ mix still in tank. For every gallon of water add 1 lb of Aluminum Sulfate.  The hard water cations, which have a positive charge, will bind to the negatively charged herbicide molecule and reduce the herbicide’s ability to be absorbed into the plant. Agitate the tank water while slowly adding the ammonium sulfate. Yes No Figure 4. Per Cubic Foot or 7 1/2 gal. Is additional Ammonium sulfate needed when using AMS-Supreme ™?  Sometimes we call this process chelating and it is well known that glyphosate can chelate Ca2+ ions, and that calcium can tie up multiple glyphosate molecules (Figure 1).  To correct this problem, when you add AMS (NH4)2SO4 to the tank, the ammonium (NH4+) disassociates from the sulfate (SO4-2) and the sulfate preferentially binds to the positively charged hard water cations. Question: Several of my growers have been using the formula listed in section #11 on page 72 in the 2015 ND Weed Control Guide to assess their water quality and AMS requirements:  lbs AMS/100 gal = (0.002 X ppm K) + (0.005 X ppm Na) + (0.009 X ppm Ca) + (0.014 X ppm Mg) + (0.042 X ppm Fe). Tablespoons. Please keep in mind that the benefit of AMS goes beyond conditioning hard water since improved weed control with herbicides and AMS can even be observed when using de-ionized (distilled) water.  Thus, a good rule of thumb would be to add more AMS to your spray solution than what is specifically calculated above for your hard water to account for this ‘physiological’ benefit and fall within the herbicide label requirements for AMS. As an example, Ammonium Sulfate contains approximately 20 percent Nitrogen. This is the reason why herbicide labels typically contain statements that indicate that rates of AMS, 8 ½ to 17 pounds of AMS per hundred gallons of water, … ft.) every 14 days throughout the growing season. Research Institution. How reliable is this formula? Is there a minimum amount of AMS recommended that we should be using? It seem like the growers are putting a lot of faith in this equation and I want to make sure that it works. Mixed Fertilizers or Potassium chloride or Ammonium phosphate. Additional Ammonium sulfate is needed only under extremely hard water conditions. Water with 1600 ppm sodium bicarbonate may occur in ND, but total hardness levels can exceed 2,500 ppm. Can you add ammonium sulfate (AS) to Roundup? + (0.014 X ppm Mg) Most growers (should) use full glyphosate rates to delay resistance in weeds. Avoid problems mixing AMS with herbicide. The 0.5 lb of AMS is much less than the 8.5 to 17 lbs/100 gallons of water that is recommended on the Roundup labels. The minimum amount of AMS needed to tie up hard water cations is calculated with this formula: lbs AMS/100 gal =  (0.002 X ppm K) It depends on how much you currently use to fertilize them, the dosage per gallon of water. How Much AMS Do I Need to Combat Hard Water Antagonism of Postemergence Herbicides? Ammonium sulfate seems to be particularly helpful in drought conditions and when the herbicide is mixed with hard water. + (0.009 X ppm Ca) 5 gallons . Use only a “spray grade” ammonium sulfate product. Is additional Ammonium sulfate needed when using AMS-Xtra ™? Yes, the label allows you to add up to 17 lb. Short Answer: The information on page 72 in the 2015 ND Weed Control Guide does recommend using the equation listed above to calculate the amount the AMS need to condition spray water but there is additional information which is equally important, “Glyphosate labels suggest AMS at 8.5 to 17 lb/100 gallons of water. Our good spray water quality has resulted in many cutting out or only using AMS at 0.5 lb/100 gallons of water for a water conditioner for Roundup. Teaspoons.  However, in this era of low commodity prices and pressure on farmers to reduce input expenses, there may be an opportunity to reduce the amount of AMS applied and not compromise herbicide activity. A saturated solution of ammonium sulfate in heavy water (D 2 O) is used as an external standard in sulfur (33 S) NMR spectroscopy with shift value of 0 ppm. Figure 3. Dissolve 1-3 tablespoons of Greenway Biotech Ammonium Sulfate fertilizer per one gallon of water. Presently he is considering inducting liquid AMS versus handling the dry product this year for their post work which is a fair amount of work currently with the dry bags. Rinse a second time in a bath of room temperature water. If you know the dosage / gallon multiply by 40 to get the amount or dose needed to create 16 oz of the Liquafeed concentrate. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed are those of the website author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. of actual nitrogen per 1,000 sq. Hang and drain for 30 minutes.  Many plants, such as velvetleaf (Figures 4 and 5), contain Ca on the leaf surface, and additional sulfate is needed to overcome the antagonism which can occur after the spray solution leaves the nozzle.  It is difficult to calculate the amount of ammonium sulfate needed to overcome Ca on the leaf surface. However, analysis of water across the U.S. shows AMS rates of 4 to 6 lbs/100 gal are adequate to overcome most hard water.” We recommend the 4 to 6 lb rate of AMS – See Long Answer. The equation in section #11 does not address the amount of ammonium in AMS needed to enhance/optimize the herbicide. If not read the label, and apply the recommended amount, this can range from 4.25- 17 lbs of AMS/100 gallons. A simple formula was developed by weed scientists at North Dakota State University to show the minimum amount of AMS needed to overcome hard water antagonism.  Since we know which hard water cations are most problematic (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe), it is fairly easy to calculate the amount of ammonium sulfate needed to condition the water to reduce the negative implications of hard water antagonism. Purdue University Only a small amount of ammonium sulfate is added to the herbicide - 8 to 20 pounds per 100 gal-lons of water. 1/4 3/4 1 1/4 2 1/2. After antagonistic minerals are neutralized by the sulfate then the ammonium can bind with most postemergence herbicides and form the optimum ammonium-herbicide salt (glyphosate-NH4, dicamba-NH4, Poast-NH4, 2,4-D-NH4, etc.). + (0.005 X ppm Na) First reaction: sulfate (from AMS) will bind with cationic minerals in the spray water to form Ca-sulfate, Mg-sulfate, Fe-sulfate, etc. Mix 1/4 cup of aluminum sulfate into 1 gallon of water in a watering can to create a soil drench for an already established plant, like a hydrangea, that needs a lower pH. Water conditioning trials have been conducted at NDSU for well over 30 years and researchers have repeatedly found that AMS is the most economical and effective water conditioner for glyphosate and many other herbicides. Always read and follow the label instructions on the product container(s) before using. Teaspoons. 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