Social media in higher education has become an essential chapter in almost every institution’s playbook. No such guidelines existed at either New York University or the University of New Mexico, which must have made it difficult for the administrations of those universities to determine an appropriate course of action with regard to Geoffrey Miller. Follow Us. Universities are often guided by a community compact that sets the standards of academic integrity, honesty, respect, diversity, fairness, and freedom of discourse. Social media policy and screening are some of the best tools higher education institutions can use to uphold core values and community standards. For example, principals or administrators can find a new way to integrate social media. It was somewhat surprising that accrediting agency did not correlate with the existence or nonexistence of social media policies, since accrediting agencies have input into so many aspects of the operation of institutions of higher education, including policies. Through social media, students find it easy as well as convenient to communicate, access information, and to provide information. Social Media Policy Marymount Primary School Introduction Marymount Primary School realizes that part of 21st century learning is adapting to the changing methods of communication. In a survey reported in the Times Higher Education Supplement, more than a third of academics express concern about falling standards [4]. The use of social media in higher education is changing the nature of the relation­ships of learners and teachers. Fig 3 shows the web services that are addressed by name in social media policies. Prior to the second stage of data collection, all URLs for franchise institutions were collapsed into one single URL for the umbrella institution. However, researchers have concerns about social media integration in higher education due to associated challenges and possible negative outcomes [1]. When data was collected for this study, no social media policy existed on New York University’s website, and the University of New Mexico had only a draft policy. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click (Check all that apply): Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc.” and “Does the policy discuss copyright? In order to keep pace with this development, it behooves institutions of higher education to not only develop social media policies (or to integrate social media into other policies, such as honor codes and codes of conduct), but to revisit them frequently, as the applications and uses of social media evolve. However, the upside of taking on a streamlined, outsourced social media screening process is that the infrastructure works similarly to any other background screening process. We are UK-wide, independent and non-partisan devoted exclusively to higher education. Fig 2 shows the percentage of all institutions of those types that have social media policies. This method did not identify all franchise institutions, but it identified most; the rest were identified manually by the researchers. The Pew Internet & American Life Project is a leader in this area—conducting and making available a wide range of studies on the topic of social networking [10]. Also on the basis of the pilot, the questions on the questionnaire were simplified, reducing the content analysis to a series of mostly multiple-choice and yes/no questions (e.g., “Which specific websites or services are mentioned by name, if any? Policies frequently mentioned particular services, with Facebook and Twitter among the most frequently mentioned. The best approach would likely be to hire people dedicated to social media who are skilled in digital marketing, outline your goals and communicate them, put a policy in place to govern things like response time, tone, diversity, and so on, and then let them go to town. School of Information Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America, Affiliation 2.4.5. By Matthew Lynch. For example, if your social media policy website is titled "Acceptable use of Social Media Policy" that might just raise an eyebrow or two. Large institutions commonly have individual units with their own social media policies. © 2018 Social Intelligence Corp Categorization tasks are apparently quite common on Mechanical Turk, because Turk provides a “Categorization App”: that is, a template for creating categorization tasks, along with some standardized controls over the Turkers' workflow. A robust social media policy can help mitigate potential misconduct at the employee level by extending the community compact into the digital sphere. My research is based in social media in higher education. By and large, however, there are few notable differences between policies at different institutions, and even few differences between policies for different campus units at different institutions. Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Universities" applicable to this article? References. … In a previous post, I highlighted a number of state and federal laws that are connected to these online tools. A proactive policy means that not only does misconduct have a clear pathway to a solution, it also demonstrates to the wider community that the institution has the administrative agility to handle itself. Nursing Departments were consistently the most likely to have policies, with 26% of all social media policies at the unit level referring to these departments. Funding: Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE)(http://www.alise.org/) provided a Research Grant to the authors. Yes We used this template in developing our content analysis questionnaire. Education and culture are essential to develop a more inclusive, cohesive and competitive Europe. Are you in charge of social media marketing for higher education? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127485.g004. Data Availability: Carnegie Classifications Data File is available here: http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/resources/. The Department for Education’s social media policy and how we interact with our social media followers. So, while both non-residential 4-year and residential 2-year institutions exist, to a certain extent the findings that 4-year and residential institutions are more likely to have social media policies than 2-year and non-residential, are two faces of the same finding. Judging by their names (because there was not much else to go on, not having a website to consult), most of the institutions that did not have websites were yeshivas (Jewish religious institutions that produce rabbis, more or less the equivalent of seminaries). During the 2012 Summer Olympics, for example, two athletes were expelled from the Games: Voula Papachristou, a member of the Greek Olympic team, and Michel Morganella, a member of the Swiss team, for tweeting racist comments [7] [8]. For institutions that operate entirely online, this may be a non-issue, but as communication during the COVID-19 crisis forces academia to pivot almost entirely to online instruction, enacting institutional values in digital spaces has become all the more poignant. This data collection was conducted between 17–23 August 2012. It says that the apex regulatory body in higher education will “use technology to reduce human interface to ensure efficiency and transparency”. The benefits of social media in the education process doesn’t have to stop at the teacher-student relationship. Educational policy initiatives may thus be viewed as responses to the struggle over particular constructions of social political, economic and cultural changes. The importance of teachers, students and parents engaging, collaborating, learning, and sharing in these digital environments is a part of 21st century learning. This work, as might be expected, tends to be more pragmatic: why organizations should have social media policies [14], how to write these policies [15], and how to leverage social media for the benefit of the organization [16] [17]. In the time it has taken the authors to write this paper, several stories about issues surrounding social media in institutions of higher education have been in the news, including those about East Stoudsburg University and the University of Kansas, mentioned above. By utilizing a social media screening service, a school can easily screen candidates as a prerequisite for employment as well as oversee current employee’s public social data for the issues that often plague campuses most often: hate speech, violence, and sexual harassment. While many academics find Twitter and Facebook useful means of disseminating their research, Sara Custer finds that … As can be seen in the examples in Table 1, some social media policies referred to individuals or campus units (e.g., “the director of the college unit,” “the President’s Office”) to which questions or other issues should be referred. Searches followed this pattern: (“social media” OR “social networking”) (policy OR guidelines OR handbook) site:unc.edu. Lecturers now prefer assignments and projects to be submitted to their emails. Geoffrey Miller is hardly unique in this. Through social media, students find it easy as well as convenient to communicate, access information, and to provide information. The top 10 UK higher education social media superstars of 2017 . Many organizations make the mistake of waiting until they’ve already faced a PR disaster to put a policy in place. The researchers had expected that figure to be 100%, given the ubiquity of the web in mid-2013, when this study was conducted. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Facebook and Twitter are the most frequently mentioned: Facebook is nearly ubiquitous, being mentioned in 97.5% of policies for the institution, and 96.5% for the unit. Some institutions integrate social media policies into other policy documents, such as student honor codes, and faculty and student codes of conduct. Policies at the unit level were most likely to appear in health-related discipline, in athletics departments, and in libraries. Analysis was done by institution and campus unit, finding that social media policies were most likely to appear at doctorate-granting institutions and health, athletics, and library units. While colleges often have many policies in place to prevent these various occurrences, what is often missing is a mechanism to handle digital spaces. On the other hand, some policy documents do not mention social media at all, implicitly treating it as just another forum for interpersonal interaction, as such falling under the jurisdiction of existing policies. After removing false positives, 822 institutions were found to have social media policies (17.7% of institutions in the Carnegie Classifications Data File, or 22.7% of the 3,620 unique institutions). Given the potential for liability, and the National Labor Relations Board’s attention to social media policies, it behooves institutions of higher education to develop policies quickly that take into account the rights of students and faculty, while mitigating risk to the institution. 1. Academic social network has moved 'at least 1.7 million articles' to make them less easily accessible, publishers say. 9 November. A solid social media policy means nothing if it cannot be executed as clearly and smoothly as any other university policy. The use of social media in higher education is changing the nature of the relation­ships of learners and teachers. Undoubtedly, a bigger number of contemporary parents do have social media profiles too. Each search was provided to three Turkers. Contrast that last example with the social media guidelines page at the Open University : "The University is aware that many of its staff and students are participating in social media in ways that are linked to University activity or teaching. Guidelines are also necessary for institutions struggling with the construction of social media policies. Turkers identified many documents as social media guidelines that were instead documents of several different types: The third and final stage of use of Mechanical Turk was to perform content analysis on the social media policy documents, to identify the issues addressed in these documents. When it comes to social media and education, some parents and teachers view these platforms as distractions that negatively influence students. The importance of teachers, students and parents engaging, collaborating, learning, and sharing in these digital environments is a part of 21st century learning. Policies in the differentiation phase provide “thoughtful guidance that empowers employees to differentiate the organization in the market” (p. 283). broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. These reports were borne out of the NLRB’s finding that some social media policies from the business sector contained provisions that were not legal. This was done because the policies at these institutions are uniform across all locations – unlike in many state university systems. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Future research – both in the academy and outside of it – is needed to investigate characteristics of organizations with social media policies in Boudreaux’s [24] three stages, and to investigate how an organization might progress more rapidly through those stages. School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Affiliation 13 November. Searches were provided to multiple Turkers in order to ensure the identification of the maximum number of documents that could be considered social media policies or guidelines. Hence they should at all times be accurate, should exercise appropriate restraint, should show respect for the opinions of others, and should make every effort to indicate that they are not speaking for the institution.”. The Carnegie Classifications Data File lists a total of 4,635 institutions, of 33 types. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127485.g003. As discussed above, there has to date been only one content analysis of social media policies [24], though the National Labor Relations Board provides a detailed legal analysis of a set of employers' social media policies [18]. Noté /5. Click Download or Read Online button to get Social Media In Higher Education book now. Unfortunately, documentation is where plenty of universities run into a problem. As a result, a variety of methods have followed, including creating a campus social media policy, guidelines and/or best practices. Social media integration in an educational setting offers many advantages to higher education institutions (HEIs). Social networks refer to the groups that form through the use of social media. Geoffrey Miller tweeted something that he regrets. Krippendorff’s alpha was calculated for each question on the content analysis questionnaire; due perhaps to the simplicity of the questions, values for alpha were quite high, ranging from 0.96 for the question, “Which specific websites or services are mentioned by name, if any?” to 0.78 for the question “Does the policy discuss how to post about events at the institution?”. Like all reports on states of the art, this one is likely to become rapidly dated. For example, principals or administrators can find a new way to integrate social media. Social Media Policies in Education. Legal necessity may also be the driver in the analysis of the role of social media in the health education environment (e.g., [19] [20] [21]). At the time of this writing, both universities had conducted disciplinary inquiries into the matter, and Miller had been formally censured by UNM [5] [6]. Social media can help here, too. Social media policies for institutions addressed 3 categories of topics more often than policies for units: the appropriateness of posts (e.g., appropriate content, appropriate tone), representing the institution (e.g., branding, public image, posting in the institution’s name), and ensuring that posts comply with the law. No need for traveling and risking lives just to study. The catalog of incidences of ill-advised academic tweeting continues to grow: recent stories that have attracted the attention of the popular and academic presses have included Gloria Gadsen’s suspension from East Stoudsburg University after posting threatening Facebook posts, and the outrage from the National Rifle Association after University of Kansas professor David Gruth’s inflammatory post about the Navy Yard shooting. Social media resources are often provided for passive use as information sources or teaching resources—perhaps an alert to an upcoming event, a blog post that directs the reader to formal academic literature, or a video that demonstrates a key … There was a great deal of consistency in the individual campus units at institutions that have social media policies. However, more Masters' institutions than any other type have social media policies (Masters' institutions comprise only 14% of institutions in the US) and a greater percentage of Research institutions (only 6% of all institutions in the US) have social media policies than any other type. Our analysis revealed that less than one-quarter of institutions had an accessible social media policy. Affiliation Proactivity sets a precedent. The first stage of use of Mechanical Turk was to collect the URLs for the websites of the institutions listed in the Carnegie Classifications Data File. Institutions of higher education are not known for the rapidity of their policy development, but speed is a necessity in the world of social media. An extensive body of literature exists on various aspects of social media. Retrouvez Social Media in Higher Education: Case Studies, Reflections and Analysis et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Given the protections for patient information in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), it makes a great deal of sense that health-related units would develop policies to ensure that their students are aware that these protections apply to social media. The existence of policies that address social media as part of campus culture may be an indication that social media is better integrated into institutional culture; such policies may be “sufficiently flexible to withstand future developments in technology and the endless creativity of its misusers” (p.5). 5 Best Social Media Practices for Higher Education. Social media is a valuable tool for conversations and sharing of information and ideas - activities that are fundamental to education. Informational policies start to diverge, as organizations learn to use social media to communicate their unique values, goals, and culture; these policies contain information about, for example, the types of personal data that the organization collects and maintains, and links to other relevant organizational policies. If the claim of tweeting in the name of research turned out to be false – as UNM ruled it to be [3] – then there would be clear policies to fall back on. To be fair, however, there is little differentiation across institutions of higher education in other types of policies, such as student honor codes [40]. Though often signed by all members of a college community, a community compact depends on a top-down approach, relying on faculty, staff, and administrators to embody these values and bring them into student life as vividly and rigorously as possible. The Kansas Board of Regents used this as justification for censuring faculty members on social media platforms, particularly when these faculty members self-identified as a member of the institution or otherwise evoked the name of the institution on the social media platform. It is difficult to predict in advance exactly how long a task will take a worker, but we managed to achieve an Effective Hourly Rate of between $8–16 for all three of our stages. No other analyses of institutions that have individual units with their own social media policies showed any notable differences. Misconduct amongst staff—be that in public spaces, classrooms, offices, or off-duty spaces—can quickly ruin an institution’s stellar reputation. Congrats to the University of Iowa for grabbing the Higher Education social media gold for the second year in a row! Prior to launching the content analysis, this questionnaire was piloted twice, with 5 Turkers conducting content analysis on 10 randomly-selected institutions’ social media policies per pilot round.