The digestibility by ruminants of para grass (, Mullen, B. F., 2009. http://www.europe-aliens.org/. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. (Eds. Buffalograss. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. A review of 15 years of agro-pastoral experimentation on the IRHO Station of Saraoutou, Vanuatu. Originating in the United States on the prairies of the Western Plains, it was given the name “Buffalo Grass” because it grew under the feet of millions of American bison, often referred to as buffalo. It can invade roadsides, gardens and lawns, grassland, river banks, swamps, coastal areas and disturbed sites, and is considered an environmental weed in Australia and New Zealand (Sauer, 1972; Howell, 2008). Dry matter production is only moderate (Mullen and Shelton, 1996), but S. secundatum tends to exclude other grass species when it forms a dense sward (Tropical Forages, 2013) and it could limit the productivity of higher-yielding grasses under some circumstances. Stenotaphrum dimidiatum var. Originally native to the Cape of Good Hope region of South Africa, the Cape deme (morphological subgroup) has been very widely distributed and naturalised in many of the warmer parts of the world as a lawn grass and a fodder species. Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalograss); young shoots and emerging leaves. Leaf-blade apex obtuse. Trailing stems at the edge of infestations (along footpaths or roadsides, for example) can be pulled out (PIER, 2013). Animal feeding stuffs. These include: "Sydney soft leaf buffalo", "Sydney Common", "Common buffalograss". Botanical name: Stenotaphrum secondatum. Buffalograss is now the main grass marketed (into shaded areas) across Australia. The establishment rate from stolons is not fast except in very warm climates (Aldous and Chivers, 2002). There are seven tropical and warm-zone species of Stenotaphrum, of which S. secundatum is the best known (Mabberley, 1991). About 1 to 2 meters tall (4 to 5 feet) Life span. Ligule a fringe of hairs. It is a sacred grass of the indigenous peoples of Canada and the United States. Paspalum conjugatum probably originated from the American tropics and is naturalized in almost every tropical and subtropical regions (FAO, 2010). Wallingford, UK: CABI, DAISIE, 2013. Lemma apex acute. Amarillo, Aeschynomene americana cv. In: The Natural History of Canterbury [ed. Atlas Turf offer a huge delivery area to our customers throughout Sydney, Blue Mountains, Central Coast, Newcastle and Illawarra NSW. Buffalo grass is generally used as fresh grass in pastures and cut-and-carry systems, or for hay (FAO, 2010). Buffalo grass, (Bouteloua dactyloides), perennial western North American grass of the family Poaceae. Introduction . Compared to other grass types such as Kikuyu or Couch, and other Buffalo grasses, Sir Walter is bulletproof. Inflorescence is composed of 2, 7-16 cm long, diverging racemes. Common name. Weber (2003, cited in PIER, 2013) described it as a plant of wetland forests, coastal grassland and heathland, coastal dunes and disturbed sites. In Australia S. secundatum was first found near Sydney and somewhere in the northwest by the mid-19th century. Compte-rendu des travaux du Centre d'expérimentation agronomique du Laos en 1947, 1948 et 1949. Summary. Stenotaphrum secundatum: a valuable forage species for shaded environments. Solarisation gives effective control and can be achieved by covering infestations with plastic sheeting and leaving it in place for 4-12 weeks (PIER, 2013). In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191. 1-17. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/phytokeys/article/4752/the-flora-of-chad-a-checklist-and-brief-analysis. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 114(2):143-150. Paspalum conjugatum is a natural pasture in coconut plantations where it yields 19 t/ha fresh matter with no fertilizer and up to 30 t/ha with NPK fertilizer (at 310 kg/ha) (FAO, 2010). The contents of major minerals, sulphur and trace elements in Pangola grass and savannas in Guadeloupe (F.W.I.). Preferred Scientific Name. Stolons present. Consolidated list of environmental weeds in New Zealand. Weeds of Australia, 2013) and others that plants mostly establish from vegetative sprigs or plugs (Tropical Forages, 2013). Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Sauer suggested that the modifications of the inflorescence allowed for short-distance dispersal of the seed by ocean currents. Basal innovations flabellate (fan-shaped). S. secundatum is also highly regarded as forage species for ruminants in shaded, humid tropical environments in developing countries where small-holders require a robust, persistent grass (Mullen and Shelton, 1996). Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Culms are red-purple, ascending to erect and 30-60 cm high. Florets: basal sterile florets male; with palea. Leaf blades are 8-20 cm long x 5-12 mm broad. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2013. (Plantes Cultivées et/ou Exotiques en Afrique central)., http://users.telenet.be/cr28796/CultAfrC.htm, PIER, 2013. In the United States of America, where selections of naturalised types have been cultivated since the 1880s, the species is commonly known as St. Augustinegrass (or St. Augustine grass). Broadleaf carpet grass. Biodiversity India, 2013. V: Gramineae, Ed.2 [ed. Panicum conjugatum (P.J.Bergius) Roxb. Science, 122:1089-1090. It has been reported that young seeds tend to stick in the throats of livestock and choke them (Deshaprabhu, 1966). It contains a haemostatic glucoside (paspaloside) that reduces the time for blood clotting by 50% (FAO, 2010). Click on a scientific name to access the mapped search results that are currently available for that name in BISON. Lower glume ovate; 0.1–0.3 length of upper glume; 0.1–0.3 length of spikelet; membranous; pallid; without keels. S. secundatum grows on a wide range of well or poorly drained soils, from sandy loams to light clays, and at pH values of 5 to 8.5. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; 7–9 -veined; without grooves; acute. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. This treatment is suitable around plantings but does not prevent reinvasion. Although the diploid forms of S. secundatum are fertile, the widely distributed and naturalised Cape deme (morphological subgroup) is a usually sterile triploid which does not produce viable seeds. Additional Contacts. The swards take time to recover if grazed too closely, and mature herbage quickly becomes unpalatable, although it is fairly palatable when young. Lower glume apex obtuse. Even though it has the word ‘grass’ in its name and it even looks like grass, it turns out that nutgrass is a sedge. The progeny of diploid seedlings showed wide phenotypic variation whereas tetraploids approached 100% sterility and triploids were highly sterile. It is drought-resistant, remaining green long into the dry season (Burkill, 1985). Sundancer Buffalograss is the most advanced turf type of Buffalograss available in the industry today. It reduces pasture productivity and causes significant degradation of natural areas. Cultivated and/or Exotic Plants in Central Africa (R.D.Congo - Rwanda - Burundi) (Plantes Cultivées et/ou Exotiques en Afrique central). Description Culms prostrate; 10-30 cm long. View other plants in this family QR code link View other plants in this genus. As the plant matures, nitrogen concentration falls from 2.7% to 1.0%, crude protein digestibility falls from 53% to 31% and dry matter digestibility from 60% to 50% (Tropical Forages, 2013). http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/, Biodiversity India, 2013. Nutrient characterisation and, Aumont, G. ; Xandé, A., 1989. Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Herbiguide. 10, Coulon, J. S. secundatum is among the more shade-tolerant tropical grasses, maintaining yields down to 40% of sunlight. Growth, morphology and nutritive quality of shaded Stenotaphrum secundatum, Axonopus compressus and Pennisetum clandestinum. Buffalograss (one word) is the common name of Panicum maximum (cf. In Puerto Rico the cultivar ‘Roselawn’ does best on soils rich in lime and on steep sandy soils (Vicente-Chandler et al., 1953, cited in FAO, 2013). Price From: $0.99 *100 Seeds Per Pack * Required Fields. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Before 1800 it was recorded as native in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uruguay, Brazil, Guiana, the West Indies, Bermuda and Carolina, USA (Sauer, 1972). Healy AJ, 1969. Weeds of Australia, 2013. Buffalo grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) reproduces by seed and also vegetatively via its creeping stems. Its usefulness is limited by its low protein content (6-15% DM) and unpalatability for cattle, though both aspects might be improved by light applications of nitrogen fertilizer (Beetle, 1974). S. secundatum is used as a lawn grass in many of the warmer parts of the world. Buffalo Grass : Scientific Plant Name: Buchloe dactyloides: Other Common Names: Other Scientific Names: Bouteloua dactyloides: Common Family Name: Grass: Scientific Family Name: Poaceae: Origin. Herbivorous. Agric. Buffalo grass, known as St. Augustine in the USA, is predominately a domestic grass. S. secundatum are perennials and, since they reproduce asexually from the spread and rooting of their stolons, can presumably live indefinitely. Survival under frosted winter conditions seems to depend on cultivar. Love grasses are typically bunched or tufted with Common name. secundatum (Walter) Domin, Stenotaphrum glabrum var. Long JA; Bashaw EC, 1961. Appraisal of St. Augustinegrasses for south Florida. When mature the crude fibre content reaches 28% DM in leaves and 40% DM in stems. Buffalo grass is low maintenance and tough as a turf grass. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, FAO, 2013. Inflorescence composed of racemes; deciduous as a whole. adventitious roots) at their joints (i.e. ; however, S. secundatum is a very coarse grass, blue-green in colour, with characteristic broad, flattened seed heads with the spikelets embedded in the main axis. This management regime prevents seed head maturity, the subsequent lowering of nutritive value and promotes faster regrowth of higher quality and palatability (FAO, 2010). Sauer JD, 1972. S. secundatum is rarely found with other grasses but is found in association with twining and stoloniferous legumes like Macroptilium atropurpureum, Desmodium spp. by Alldous, D. E.\Chivers, I. H.]. Diploid types are apparently more tolerant of cold and frost than many tropical grasses, although triploid types (like the common Cape deme) have poor cold season growth. Rottboellia tripsacoides Lam. Seeds and stem segments are dispersed in dumped garden waste, and … Edgar E; Connor HE, 2010. Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalograss); young plant with young inflorescences. Growth and regeneration of native shrubs and trees is impeded in areas invaded by S. secundatum. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press, Landcare Research, xlii + 23 + 650 pp. Prescott RA; Potter PC, 2001. The inflorescence of Cats Tail is sometimes used in flower arrangements. Grazed Guinea grass/buffalo grass pastures led to higher coconut yields and were considered to be very suitable for goats (Coulon et al., 1983). Other names (PBR name, trademark, breeder code) Buffalo grass (Northern Australia), broadleaf carpet grass, cow grass (Singapore, South-East Asia), tropical carpet grass, carpetgrass. The flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. Digitaria conjugata (P.J.Bergius) Schult. Rhachis flattened; terminating in a barren extension; extension subulate. Poaceae ⁄ Gramineae – Grass family Genus: Bouteloua Lag. DOI:10.2307/2805871, Tropical Forages, 2013. The leaf sheath and leaves are hairy on the margins. Lemma margins flat. As Paspalum conjugatum is tolerant to defoliation it withstands heavy grazing and frequent cuttings. Buffalo grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) reproduces by seed and also vegetatively via its creeping stems. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. Weedbusters New Zealand (2013) recommends using haloxyfop to control S. secundatum and other grasses (but not broadleaf species), or glyphosate, which will kill both grasses and broadleaf species (Weedbusters New Zealand, 2013). This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Tropical Forages, 2013. Buffalo grass has no superior as a productive source of livestock feed on at least a part of the rolling, erosive and unproductive areas in the Central Plains. S. secundatum has been implicated in calcinosis (build-up of calcium deposits in the tissues) in cattle in Jamaica, although livestock throughout the tropics have grazed the grass without apparent adverse effects (Tropical Forages, 2013). Other names (PBR name, trademark, breeder code) Common buffalograss has been used to identfy a range of "common" or older varieties or genotypes of buffalograss. It owes its distinctive sweet scent to the presence of coumarin. 11 to 22 years in the wild . A common grass of the Great Plains, its natural habitat in Minnesota is limited to a few rock outcrops in our southwest counties, but it is widely available as an alternative to turf grass so has been planted in many other areas around the state. Australia’s Virtual Herbarium. it is a human commensal), Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. Inflorescence is composed of 2, 7-16 cm long, diverging racemes. Sauer (1972) revised the genus and described the seven species in detail, along with their distribution and history. Such flotation could account for local dispersal but not for transoceanic dispersal, unless such seed-bearing fragments become attached to floating debris (of artificial or natural materials), and thus carried further afield. The Cape deme (morphological subgroup) of S. secundatum has been a particularly successful invasive (Sauer, 1972). Organic matter digestibility for a 25 cm high, fresh forage was 65% (Loosli et al., 1954). S. secundatum is susceptible to many common broadleaf herbicides (Aldous and Chivers, 2002). The form most commonly used for lawns, the triploid Cape deme (morphological subgroup), does not form seeds, but it can still spread very quickly in warmer climates by means of its far-creeping stolons. Buffalo grass still grows wild on the western prairies of the U.S. and has become a true rags to riches lawn grass variety. Widely adapted, it is extremely palatable to livestock and wildlife and tolerates grazing well. Biological control of S. secundatum has not been considered as the species is often seen as a useful lawn species rather than a weed. The plant is a perennial native to the Great Plains from Montana to New Mexico. its common name, buffalo grass. Int., 32 (2): 463-468, FAO, 2010. 37 Eagle Street, Brackenfell, Western Cape. Asian Buffalo, or by their scientific name Bubalus bubalis. Allergenicity and cross-reactivity of buffalo grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum). S. secundatum contains about 1% of oxalates in the dry matter but this does not make it toxic to livestock (Garcia-Rivera and Morris, 1955, cited in FAO, 2013). Paspalum africanum Poir. Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalograss); young, expanding inflorescences. Scientific name. eFloras, 2013. In Australia, buffalo grass is the common name of Stenotaphrum secundatum. Shade generally increased nutritive value by increasing nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility, although the latter response was slight. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Compositional data of feeds and concentrates. xlii + 23 + 650 pp. Buffalo grass (Paspalum conjugatum P. J. Bergius) is a spreading perennial grass with long creeping stolons rooting at the nodes. Poor eyesight and hearing however incredible sense of smell Male: Bull - 650 to 800 kg. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, Sauer J D, 1972. Common name: Buffalo. (1990b) grew S. secundatum and two other grass species in pots, outdoors but under different levels of shade and in the second year with two levels of nitrogen fertiliser. S. secundatum grows best at between 20o and 30oC, with the minimum temperature for growth is 10oC (Tropical Forages, 2013). Weight. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 858 pp. Grassland species profiles. June 2012. buffalo grass; Other Scientific Names. Online Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. Paspalum hirsutum Poir. Sports turf and amenity grasses: a manual for use and identification [ed. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Buffalo grass (Paspalum conjugatum P. J. Bergius) is a spreading perennial grass with long creeping stolons rooting at the nodes. Vol. Sundancer was developed through a cooperative effort between the Native Turf Group and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Spikelets are solitary with long white hairs on the … Sundancer Buffalograss is the most advanced turf type of Buffalograss available in the industry today. Seeds and stem segments are dispersed in dumped garden waste, and … Tropical forages: an interactive selection tool. Edgar E, Connor H E, 2010. by Edgar E, Connor H E]. It was one of the dominant (most common) grasses of the American high plains with a broad range from Mexico to Canada across our driest grasslands. Paspalum longissimum Hochst. Description. By any name, they are formidable beasts and the heaviest land animals in North America. India Biodiversity Portal. Buffalo Grass is one of the few dioecious grasses, though occasionally a plant will have both male and female flowers. ); blousaad soetgras (Afr.) Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Buffalo Grass (Panicum maximum) Gatton PUK P8: Drilled 2-4 Broadcast 6-8 Irrigation 5-6: 450-1700 also under irrigation: All warm summer rainfall areas: Oct-Nov Feb-Mar: Very adaptable except on sandy soils: Contact Us +27 (0) 21 981 1126 info@agricol.co.za. Name and Surname * Contact Number * Email … Since 1900 the race previously present has been replaced by the Cape deme on Norfolk Island and the North Island of New Zealand. 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